Recurrent C. difficile Infection Burden Phase 2


Icon of a person with arrows depicting a cycle

Get the full story of the microbiome

  1. Importance of Microbial Diversity
  2. Dysbiosis and Recurrent C. difficile Infection
  3. Currently Approved Treatment Options
  4. Historic Microbiome Restoration Approaches
  5. Patient and Healthcare Burdens

C. difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common
healthcare-associated infections in US hospitals, affecting
approximately half a million people annually.1,2

Icon of a person

Patient Burden

Icon of a person with arrows depicting a cycle

Recurrence is a vicious cycle

  • Up to 35% of patients experience recurrence1,3,a
  • Up to 65% of patients experience subsequent recurrences4,5
Icon of a person indicating suffering

Physical and psychological suffering continues

From a 2017 study that surveyed patients with CDI or recurrent CDI (rCDI), a majority of 350 patients who have experienced CDI or rCDI report physical and psychological symptoms6

  • 41% of patients believed they would never get rid of post-CDI symptoms6
Icon of skull and cross bones

CDI can lead to significant complications including sepsis, colectomy, and mortality


  • 27% of patients (aged 18 to 64 years) with one recurrence experienced
    sepsis during 12-month follow-up7,b


  • 7% of patients with one recurrence had a colectomy during 12-month


  • 6% of patients with index CDI within 30 days of diagnosis1
  • 25% of Medicare patients with rCDI at 12 months8
  • 52.5% of Medicare patients with rCDI who developed sepsis at 12

Other severe complications in patients include heart failure (43%),9,c anxiety (14%),10,d and depression (15%).10,d

aWithin 8 weeks after initial CDI diagnosis.

bLongitudinal, retrospective study of the US PharMetrics Plus™ database reported on complications of CDI recurrence over 1 year (N=46,571) from a single referral center.

cRetrospective study of a Medicare claims analysis of patients with CDI (N=268,762).

d12-month follow-up of retrospective cohort study at first recurrence (N=38,163).

Icon of hospital

Healthcare Burden

Icon of person and hospital


  • Up to 84% of all patients with rCDI were hospitalized within a year in a single center study11
  • Up to 85% of all patients with rCDI were readmitted within a year in a single center study12
Icon of calendar

Length of stay

  • Hospitalizations averaged 18 days for patients with rCDI in a single center study of Medicare patients >65 years of age9
Icon of money


  • $131K to $207K in total direct costs per patient with rCDI within a year in a study of state institutional databases13
  • A -$3K to -$29K gap existed in reimbursement per patient with rCDI in a study of state institutional databases14

According to the CDC, CDI is classified as an immediate public health threat requiring aggressive, urgent action15